Lycopodiaceae image
John Kohout  

Key to Wisconsin Lycopodiaceae

Author: Robert W. Freckmann

    • 1a.Branchlets flattened, concave on the lower side, or almost square in cross-section; leaves scalelike, in 4 ranks, appressed and fused to the branch, with a free tip less than 3 mm long Diphasiastrum

    • 1b.Branchlets terete; leaves linear or lanceolate, attached at base, ascending, spreading, or reflexed, not fused to branches (except on peduncle below cone in some species). 2

    • 2a.Sporangia borne in the axils of lanceolate to oblanceolate leaves, usually in zones below the top of the stem; gemmae (detachable buds) often in the axils of upper leaves; long horizontal stems absent, the upright stems clustered Huperzia

    • 2b.Sporangia borne in strobili (cones) at top of some stems; gemmae not produced; long horizontal stems or rhizomes present, the upright stems or branches not clustered 3

    • 3a.Sporophylls (leaves subtending sporangia in the cone) green and similar to the sterile leaves, except longer, making the cone wider than the stem; sterile branches creeping or arching, usually with all leaves curving upward Lycopodiella

    • 3b.Sporophylls scalelike, usually turning yellow or brown, shorter than the sterile leaves, making the cone narrower than the stem; sterile branches erect to spreading 4

    • 4a.Apex of leaves with a soft hair-like tip 1--4 mm long; cones elevated on peduncles (slender stalks with small leaves) Lycopodium

    • 4b.Leaves tapering to a firm tip; cones borne at the top of ordinary leafy stems 5

    • 5a.Erect stems unbranched or forking once, slightly narrower at points marking segments of annual growth; horizontal stems long, green, and leafy; cones solitary at top of erect stems Spinulum

    • 5b.Erect stems branching repeatedly, arising from a yellowish rhizome; cones 1--7 Dendrolycopodium

The Lycopodiaceae includes 16 genera and at least 388 species, perhaps over 500 species. All species are evergreen perennials, many with long-lived creeping rhizomes bearing erect stems/branches, others with only clustered upright stems. Leaves range from linear or lanceolate, attached at base on terete branches to appressed scales in four ranks on flattened branches. Sporangia are in axils of unmodified leaves or in axils of scalelike leaves aggregated to form strobili (cones).
Species within Navarino Cedar Swamp State Natural Area: Northern Mesic Forest