1a. Leaves in whorls of 3, all awl-like, articulated at the base, not decurrent; female cones on very short peduncles, axillary ... J. communis
1b. Leaves mostly opposite, awl-like (these whorled but not articulated, decurrent at the base) or scale-like; female cones on short peduncles, terminal ... 2
2a. Prostrate trailing shrubs; cones on arched or recurved peduncles; leaves apiculate at the apex ... J. horizontalis
2b. Erect small trees; cones on straight, ascending peduncles; leaves obtuse to acute at the apex ... J. virginiana
The cones in this genus are bluish, glaucous, and resemble berries; they are used to flavor gin. Plants can often be found with orange galls caused by a rust fungus of the genus Gymnosporangium, which also infects apples.