blue vervain, simpler's-joy, swamp verbena
Etymology: Verbena: ancient Latin name of the common European vervain
Plants: erect, biennial/perennial, 16"-40" tall forb, roughly hairy, branched toward the top; stems square
Leaves: opposite, lance-like, to 7" long, coarsely toothed, often with 3 lower lobes
Flowers: deep blue, 5-parted, 1/8"-1/4" wide, tube hairy; inflorescence a 8" loosely-branched, terminal cluster of densely-flowered spikes; blooms July-Oct.
Fruits: 4 linear, separating nutlets
Habitat: full sun; moist; prairies, meadows, fields, streambanks; in sandy, loamy soil
Conservation Status: Native
Floristic Rating: Coefficient of Conservatism = 3, Wetland Indicator = FACW+ Atlas of the Wisconsin Prairie and Savanna Flora: by T.S. Cochrane & H.H. Iltis: habitat, distribution infomation / flowering and fruiting times USDA Plants Database: Federal Distribution and detailed information including photos USGS - Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center: Wetland Plants and Plant Communities of Minnesota and Wisconsin USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS): Images of seeds, fruits, embryos, etc. Dan Tenaglia's The Missouri Flora: Fabulous photographs; detailed descriptions; color and leave arrangement key. David G. Smith's "Delaware Wilflowers": Beautiful photographs; descriptions Illinois Wildflowers: Wonderful photographs; detailed descriptions; color and leaf arrangement key Southwest School of Botanical Medicine: Britton & Brown Illustrated Flora - 2nd Edition (1913) "An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada"