Pinus banksiana Lamb.
Family: Pinaceae
jack pine
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Kitty Kohout  
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Paul Drobot  
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Bell Museum  
Etymology: Pinus: the ancient Latin name
Plants: perennial, 15'-40' tall, evergreen tree
Leaves: 2 needles per cluster 3/4-1 1/2", more than 1/16" wide
Fruits: 1 1/4-2" long cones curved/bulging on 1 side
Conservation Status: Native
Dry to dry-mesic forests of mixed pines, oak-pine, aspen, red maple-birch, oak-basswood-cherry, mixed conifers-red oak-aspen-birch.  Pine barrens, sand barrens, cliffs, blufftops, rock outcrops, roadsides, fields, sandpits, roadcuts, sandy, dry lakeshores and river terraces, pine relicts, dry prairies, lake dunes, invading bogs, poor fens, and conifer swamps.  Sometimes escaping from plantations.
Based on the original land survey data, jack pine was historically prevalent in the Central Sands, Northwest Sands, Northeast Sands, Northern Highlands, and the northernmost part of the Western Coulees.  It was also scattered throughout the western three-quarters of the state.  Jack pine is still a common tree in those regions and still exists on numerous pine relicts in the southern Driftless Area.  It has also invaded the numerous sand barrens that developed along the Lower Wisconsin River from failed farms.  Jack pine has invaded many peatlands in the Central Sands, creating an unusual “jack pine swamp” community where wetland plants and sphagnum mosses thrive under a xeric-adapted tree species.
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Paul Drobot  
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Matthew L. Wagner  
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Paul Drobot  
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Paul Drobot  
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Hugh H. Iltis  
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Robert Bierman  
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Derek Anderson  
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Aaron_Carlson  
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