Pedicularis canadensis
Family: Orobanchaceae
Canadian lousewort, forest lousewort, wood-betony
Pedicularis canadensis image
Christopher Noll  
Etymology: Pedicularis: from the Latin pediculus meaning "louse," referring to the old English belief that when cattle grazed on these plants, they became infested with lice
Plants: erect, perennial, 4"-16" tall forb; short rhizomes forming large clumps, partially parasitic
Leaves: mostly basal then opposite, finely pinnately-toothed; lower leaves with the stalk longer than the blade, upper leaves smaller and almost stalkless
Flowers: yellow (sometimes with a reddish hood), 5-parted, 3/4"-1" long, tubular-shaped, upper lip with 2 small teeth near the hooded tip covering the 4 stamens, lower lip shorter; inflorescence a 1"-2" terminal, leafy, conical spike elongating with age; blooms April-June
Fruits: capsule, opening at the top
Habitat: dry to moderate moisture; prairies, woods, forests