bastard evening-primrose, common evening-primrose
[Oenothera biennis subsp. caeciarum L., more...]
Etymology: Oenothera: from Greek oinos, "wine," and thera, "to imbibe," because an allied European plant was thought to induce a taste for wine
Plants: erect, biennial/perennial, 2'-6' tall forb, mostly smooth
Leaves: lance-like to oblong, alternate
Flowers: yellow, 4-parted, 3/4"-2" wide; inflorescence a stiff, terminal, usually unbranched spike; blooms July-Oct.
Fruits: capsule thickest near the base, seeds without tufts of hair at the top
Habitat: dry to moderate moisture; disturbed sites, prairies
Conservation Status: Native
Floristic Rating: Coefficient of Conservatism = 1, Wetland Indicator = FACU Atlas of the Wisconsin Prairie and Savanna Flora: by T.S. Cochrane & H.H. Iltis: habitat, distribution infomation / flowering and fruiting times USDA Plants Database: Federal Distribution and detailed information including photos USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS): Images of seeds, fruits, embryos, etc. Dan Tenaglia's The Missouri Flora: Fabulous photographs; detailed descriptions; color and leave arrangement key. David G. Smith's "Delaware Wilflowers": Beautiful photographs; descriptions Illinois Wildflowers: Wonderful photographs; detailed descriptions; color and leaf arrangement key Southwest School of Botanical Medicine: Britton & Brown Illustrated Flora - 2nd Edition (1913) "An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada"