Carpinus caroliniana Walter
Family: Betulaceae
American hornbeam, blue-beech, hornbeam, ironwood, muscle-wood
Carpinus caroliniana image
Paul Drobot  
Etymology: Carpinus: Latin possibly from carpentum, a horse-drawn Roman vehicle with wheels made from this wood
Plants: perennial tree to 40' tall with short, crooked, fluted trunks; crown broadly spreading; bark bluish gray, smooth to sometimes roughened
Leaves: oval to elliptic to narrowly elliptic; edges coarsely and irregularly doubly toothed; teeth sharp and narrow
Flowers: male catkin 3/4"-2 1/3" long; blooms late spring
Fruits: fruit clusters 1 1/2"-4 1/2" long, lobes triangular with a sharp tip
Habitat: moist; rich, deciduous woods; streambanks, floodplains, hillsides
Conservation Status: Native