Campanulaceae image
Kitty Kohout  

Key to Wisconsin Campanulaceae

    • 1a.Corolla strongly bilaterally symmetrical, somewhat 2-lipped, the tube split down the (apparently) upper side; anthers connate, not separating, forming a ring around the style; carpels 2; capsules opening irregularly or by 2 apical valvesd Lobelia

    • 1b.Corolla radially symmetrical, campanulate or rotate, the tube not split; anthers initially coherent, becoming free after anthesis; carpels 3; capsules opening by lateral pores 2

    • 2a.Corolla campanulate, the lobes shorter (in Campanula) or longer (in Palustricodon) than the tube; flowers axillary or terminal, pedicellate (except in two rare introduced species); capsules often nodding; perennials 3

    • 2b.. Corolla rotate or broadly funnelform, the lobes longer than the tube; flowers 1 or 2–4 per node, sessile or subsessile; capsules ascending to stiffly erect; annuals, winter-annuals, or biennnials 4

      • 3a.Stems retrorse-scabrous on the angles, very slender and weak, reclining on other plants; flowers 1-several in open, panicle-like inflorescences; corollas 4–10 (–11) mm long; leaves almost always ˂ 7 mm wide; moist to wet habitats Palustricodon

          • 3b.Stems glabrous to somewhat hairy or bristly but not retrorse-scabrous, usually stiff and erect or ascending; flowers in relatively stout clusters, spikes, or racemes (except in Campanula rotundifolia); corollas usually 12–30 (–35) mm long (seldom as short as 9 mm in C. rotundifolia); leaves various; usually mesic to dry, sometimes rocky habitats Campanula

          • 4a.Flowers in terminal, spike-like racemes or thyrses 10–40 (–60) cm long, most bracts much shorter and narrower than the leaves; leaves or bracts ovate-oblong to lanceolate or linear, tapered at the base; style declined with an upcurved tip; pores of the capsules subapical; coarse winter-annual or biennial Campanulastrum

          • 4b.Flowers (open, showy ones) along the upper 1/3–2/3 of the stem, sessile in the axil of a slightly smaller, upper leaf (bract), forming a false spike often 3–24 cm long; leaves and bracts ± suborbicular, sessile and cordate-clasping; style straight; pores of the capsules submedian; slender annual Triodanis