fen betony, swamp betony, swamp-lousewort
Etymology: Pedicularis: from the Latin pediculus meaning "louse," referring to the old English belief that when cattle grazed on these plants, they became infested with lice
Plants: erect, perennial, 1'-3' tall forb; stems mostly solitary; partially parasitic
Leaves: mostly opposite, short-stalked, long, finely pinnately-toothed
Flowers: yellow, 5-parted, 3/4"-1" long, tubular-shaped, upper lip entire with the hooded tip covering the 4 stamens, lower lip almost as long as upper; inflorescence a leafy, conical spike both terminal and from the upper leaf axils; blooms Aug.-Sept.
Fruits: capsule, opening at the top
Habitat: wet; meadows, prairies, marshes, shores; in limy soil
Conservation Status: Native
Floristic Rating: Coefficient of Conservatism = 8, Wetland Indicator = FACW+ Atlas of the Wisconsin Prairie and Savanna Flora: by T.S. Cochrane & H.H. Iltis: habitat, distribution infomation / flowering and fruiting times USDA Plants Database: Federal Distribution and detailed information including photos Dan Tenaglia's The Missouri Flora: Fabulous photographs; detailed descriptions; color and leave arrangement key. Southwest School of Botanical Medicine: Britton & Brown Illustrated Flora - 2nd Edition (1913) "An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada"