Etymology: Verbena: ancient Latin name of the common European vervain
Plants: erect, annual/perennial, 16"-40" tall forb, usually branched near the base; stems square
Leaves: opposite, widely lance-like to oval, stalked; 1- to 2-times toothed
Flowers: white, 5-parted, 1/8" wide or less; inflorescence very loosely-spreading, branched, slender spikes; blooms July-Oct.
Fruits: 4 separating nutlets
Habitat: disturbed sites, woods, thickets
Conservation Status: Native
Floristic Rating: Coefficient of Conservatism = 2, Wetland Indicator = FAC+ USDA Plants Database: Federal Distribution and detailed information including photos USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS): Images of seeds, fruits, embryos, etc. Dan Tenaglia's The Missouri Flora: Fabulous photographs; detailed descriptions; color and leave arrangement key. Southwest School of Botanical Medicine: Britton & Brown Illustrated Flora - 2nd Edition (1913) "An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada"