Etymology: Verbena: ancient Latin name of the common European vervain
Plants: erect, annual/perennial, 8"-36" tall forb, stout, with dusty-looking, long hairs; stems square
Leaves: opposite, oval to elliptical, stalkless, sharply toothed
Flowers: deep blue to purple, 5-parted, 1/8"-1/4" wide; inflorescence usually 1 to a few, 8" long, thick spikes; blooms July-Sept.
Fruits: 4 elliptical, separating nutlets
Habitat: full sun; dry to moderate moisture; disturbed sites, prairies, inland sands, fields; in sandy, loamy soil
Conservation Status: Native
Floristic Rating: Coefficient of Conservatism = 3 Atlas of the Wisconsin Prairie and Savanna Flora: by T.S. Cochrane & H.H. Iltis: habitat, distribution infomation / flowering and fruiting times USDA Plants Database: Federal Distribution and detailed information including photos USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS): Images of seeds, fruits, embryos, etc. Illinois Wildflowers: Wonderful photographs; detailed descriptions; color and leaf arrangement key Dan Tenaglia's The Missouri Flora: Fabulous photographs; detailed descriptions; color and leave arrangement key. Southwest School of Botanical Medicine: Britton & Brown Illustrated Flora - 2nd Edition (1913) "An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada"