Etymology: Phalaris: Greek for "shining" referring to the shining seeds or possibly to the crestlike seed head
Plants: erect, perennial, 2'-6' tall grass, dense stands crowding out other plants; stems stout; spreading rhizomes
Leaves: wide 3"-10", gray-green, flat tapering to end; with ligule
Flowers: green; inflorescence one flowered spikelet in dense cluster above leaf
Habitat: full to partial shade; moderate moisture, moist, to wet; shores, marshes, water to 1', disturbed areas
Hazardous: Careful, this plant is hazardous!
Invasiveness: Invasive - Eradicate!
Conservation Status: Introduced - naturalized; ecologically invasive
Flora of North America: Flora of North America Floristic Rating: Wetland Indicator = FACW+ Invasive And Exotic Species of North America: Descriptions, management issues, warnings, photos, etc. WIS DNR-Bureau of Endangered Resources: Detailed information on Wisconsin invasive species including decription, habitats, control methods Wisconsin Natural Resources Magazine: Information and Photos USDA Plants Database: Federal Distribution and detailed information including photos Grasses of Iowa: Detailed photographs, descriptions, maps Canada Agriculture and Agri-Food
Alberta Government: "The identification of certain native and naturalized grasses by their vegetative characters", S.E. Clarke, J.A. Campbell and W. Shevkenek. 1950.
(Publication no. 762 ; Technical bulletin no. 50). Drawings, descriptions. University of Wisconsin - Green Bay: Wetland Plants: Photos, descriptions, information University of Wisconsin - Green Bay: Invasive Plants: Photos, descriptions, information USGS - Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center: Wetland Plants and Plant Communities of Minnesota and Wisconsin USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS): Images of seeds, fruits, embryos, etc. Great Lakes Indian Fish & Wildlife Center: Exotic Plant Information Center: Invasive Species Descriptions and information