Etymology: Echinochloa: Greek echinos for "hedgehog" and chloa for grass, referring to allusion of bristling awns
Plants: annual grass
Floristic Rating: Wetland Indicator = FACW Invasive And Exotic Species of North America: Descriptions, management issues, warnings, photos, etc. USDA Plants Database: Federal Distribution and detailed information including photos Grasses of Iowa: Detailed photographs, descriptions, maps Canada Agriculture and Agri-Food
Alberta Government: "The identification of certain native and naturalized grasses by their vegetative characters", S.E. Clarke, J.A. Campbell and W. Shevkenek. 1950.
(Publication no. 762 ; Technical bulletin no. 50). Drawings, descriptions. University of Wisconsin - Green Bay: Wetland Plants: Photos, descriptions, information USGS - Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center: Wetland Plants and Plant Communities of Minnesota and Wisconsin