Etymology: Castanea: classical name from town in Thessaly
Plants: perennial tree to 98' tall; gray bark roughening with age
Leaves: narrowly obovate to lance-like, base blunt to slightly pointed, edges with sharp, long teeth
Flowers: male flowers with white to yellow center hairs, 3 female flowers per cluster; blooms in June-July
Fruits: 4-sectioned, spiny "bur" with 1-3 obovate nuts
Habitat: rich deciduous forests
Conservation Status: Introduced - persisting and spreading
Flora of North America: Flora of North America Wisconsin Natural Resources Magazine: Information and Photos USDA Plants Database: Federal Distribution and detailed information including photos University of Wisconsin - Green Bay: Trees: Photos, descriptions, information USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS): Images of seeds, fruits, embryos, etc. Virginia Tech Dept. of Forestry, College of Natural Resources: detailed description and photographs Southwest School of Botanical Medicine: Britton & Brown Illustrated Flora - 2nd Edition (1913) "An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada"