Etymology: Hackelia: named after J. Hackel (1783-1869), Czech botanist
Plants: erect, biennial, 1'-3' tall forb, stout, many upper branches
Leaves: lower leaves large, ovate, narrowing toward the stalk, upper smaller and becoming stalkless
Flowers: white to bluish, 5-parted, 1/8" wide, dish to funnel-shaped, tube shorter than the lobes; inflorescence of many, paired, spreading clusters (racemes) of stalked flowers becoming 2"-6" long, leafless near the top but with leaf bracts toward the bottom often alternating with the flowers; blooms July-Sept.
Fruits: short-stalked, rounded, sticky nutlet with prickles on its back
Habitat: upland woods
Conservation Status: Native
Floristic Rating: Coefficient of Conservatism = 3, Wetland Indicator = FAC- USDA Plants Database: Federal Distribution and detailed information including photos David G. Smith's "Delaware Wilflowers": Beautiful photographs; descriptions Dan Tenaglia's The Missouri Flora: Fabulous photographs; detailed descriptions; color and leave arrangement key.